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Overview of literature

Selection of peer reviewed literature about CVI
Links to PDF files:


Visual Perception in Preterm Children: What Are We Currently Measuring?


The Spectrum of Cerebral Visual Impairment as a Sequel to Premature Birth: an Overview


Screening for Cerebral Visual Impairment: Value of a CVI Questionnaire

Early Identification of Cerebral Visual Impairment in Infants Born Extremely Preterm




  • Dutton, G. N., & Bax, M. (2010). Visual Impairment in Children due to Damage to the Brain. London: Mac Keith Press.

  • Lueck, A. H., & Dutton, G. N. (2015). Vision and the Brain: Understainding cerebral visual impairment in children. New York: AFB Press.

  • Roman-Lantzy C. (2007). Cortical Visual Impairment: an approach to assessment and inventory. New York: AFB Press.

  • Roman-Lantzy C. (2018). Cortical visual impairment: An approach to assessment and intervention, 2nd Edition. New York: AFB Press.

  • Tallent, A., Tallent, A., & Bush, F. (2012). Little Bear Sees: How children with cortical visual impairment can learn to see. Little Bear Sees Publishing.

  • Zihl, J., & Dutton, G. N. (2015). Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children: Visuoperceptive and visuocognitieve disorders. Wien: Springer.



  • Centrum Ganspoel (2014). Begeleiding van kleuters met CVI. Leuven: Acco.

  • Centrum Ganspoel (2011). Weet je wat ik heb? CVI. Een doeboek voor kinderen en jongeren met visuele perceptiestoornissen. Leuven: Acco.

  • Luyten, J. (2013). Kinderen met cerebrale visuele inperking (CVI). Antwerpen: Garant Uitgevers.

  • Steendam, M. (2007). Weet jij wat ik zie? Cerebrale visuele stoornissen bij kinderen, een handleiding voor professionals. Huizen: Visio.



CVI – General information: Here you can find general information about CVI, diagnosis, comorbidity, (neuro)psychological assessment, functional vision assessment and case studies.

  • Jacker, B., Wilson, M., & Hartmann, E. (2010). A Survey of Parents of Children with Cortical or Cerebral Visual Impairment. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 104(10), 613-623.

  • Dutton, G. N., & Jacobson, L. K. (2001). Cerebral visual impairment in children. Seminars in Neonatology, 6(6), 477-485. doi: 10.1053/siny.2001.0078

  • Fazzi, E., Signorini, S. G., Bova, S. M., La Piana, R., Ondei, P., Bertone, C., Misefari, W., & Bianchi, P. E. (2006). Spectrum of Visual Disorders in Children With Cerebral Visual Impairment. Journal of Child Neurology, 22(3), 294-301. doi: 10.1177/0883073807300525

  • Flanagan, N. M., Jackson, A. J., & Hill, A. E. (2003). Visual impairment in childhood: insights from a community-based survey. Child Care, Health and Development, 29(6), 493-499. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2214.2003.00369.x

  • Geldof, C. J. A., van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A. G., de Kieviet, J. F., Kok, J. H., & Oosterlaan, J. (2012). Visual perception and visual-motor integration in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children: a meta-analysis. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33, 726-736.

  • Geldof, C. J. A., Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A. G., Dik, M., Kok, J. H., & Oosterlaan, J. (2015). A functional approach to cerebral visual impairments in very preterm/very low birth weight children. Pediatric Research, 78(2), 190-197. doi:10.1038/pr.2015.83

  • Hoyt, C. S. (2003). Visual function in the brain-damaged child. Eye, 17, 369-384.

  • Newcomb, S. (2010). The reliability of the CVI range: A functional vision assessment for children with cortical visual impairment. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 104(10), 637-647.

  • Ortibus, E., Laenen, A., Verhoeven, J., De Cock, P., Schoolmeesters, B., Buyck, A., & Lagae, L. (2011). Screening for Cerebral Visual Impairment: Value of a CVI Questionnaire. Neuropediatrics, 42, 138-147. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1285908

  • Ortibus, E., Lagae, L., Casteels, I., Demaerel, P., & Stiers, P. (2009). Assessment of cerebral visual impairment with the “L94” visual perceptual battery: clinical value and correlation with MRI findings. Developmental Medicine and Child neurology, 51(3), 209-217.

  • Ortibus, E., Verhoeven, J., De Cock, P., Sunaert, S., Casteels, I., Laenen, A., Schoolmeesters, B., Buyck, A., & Lagae, L. (2011). Screening for cerebral visual impairment: validation of a CVI questionnaire. Neuropediatrics, 42(4), 138-147.

  • Porro, G., Dekker, E. M., Van Nieuwenhuizen, O., Wittebol-Post, D., Schilder, M. B. H., Schenk-Rootlieb, A. J. F., & Treffers, W. F. (1998). Visual behaviours of neurologically impaired children with cerebral visual impairment: an ethological study.  Journal of Ophtalmology, 82, 1231-1235. doi: 10.1136/bjo. 82.11.1231

  • Stiers, P., van den Hout, B. M., Haers, M., Vanderkelen, R., de Vries, L. S., van Nieuwenhuizen, O., & Vandenbussche, E. (2001). The variety of visual perceptual impairments in pre-school children with perinatal brain damage. Brain and Development, 23(5), 333-348. doi: 10.1016/S0387-7604(01)00241-8

  • Swift, S. H., Davidson, R. C., & Weems, L. J. (2008). Cortical visual impairment in children: Presentation intervention, and prognosis in educational settings. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 4(5), 1-14.


CVI – Terminology
  • Colenbrander, A. (2010). What’s in a name? Appropriate terminology for CVI. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 104(10), 583-585.

  • Frebel, H. (2006). CVI?! How to define and what terminology to use: Cerebral, cortical or cognitive visual impairment. British Journal of Visual Impairment, 24(3), 117- 120. doi: 10.1177/026461960606066181

  • Lueck, A. H. (2010). Cortical or cerebral visual impairment in Children: A brief overview. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 104(10), 585-592.

CVI – Literacy
  • Brennan, S. A., Luze, G. J., & Peterson, C. (2009). Parents’ Perceptions of Professional Support for the Emergent Literacy of Young Children with Visual Impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 103(10), 694-704.

  • Day, J. N. (2005). Enhancing emergent literacy skills in inclusive preschools for young children with visual impairments. Young Exceptional Children, 9, 20-28.

  • Douglas, G., McLinden, M., McCall, S., Pavey, S., Ware, J., & Farrell, A. M. (2011). Access to print literacy for children and young people with visual impairment: findings from a review of literature. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 26(1), 25-38. doi: 10.1080/08856257.2011.543543

  • Erickson, K. A., & Hatton, D. (2007). Expanding Understanding of Emergent Literacy: Empirical Support for a New Framework. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness 101(5), 261-277.

  • Erickson, K. A., Hatton, D., Roy, V., Fox, D., & Renne, D. (2007). Literacy in Early Intervention for Children with Visual Impairments: Insights from Individual Cases. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 101(2), 80-95.

  • Fellenius, K., Ek, U., & Jacobson, L. (2001). Reading strategies in children with cerebral visual impairment caused by periventricular leukomalacia. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 48, 283-302.

  • Johnson, S. S., McDonnell, A. P., & Hawken, L. S. (2008). Enhancing outcomes in early literacy for young children with disabilities: Strategies for success. Intervention in School and Clinic, 43, 210-217.

  • Keefe, E., & Copeland, S. (2011). What is literacy? The power of a definition. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 36(3-4), 92-99.

  • Lewis, S., & Tolla, J. (2003). Creating and using tactile experience books for young children with visual impairments. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35, 22-28.

  • McKenzie, A. R. (2009). Emergent Literacy Supports for Students Who Are Deaf-Blind or Have Visual and Multiple Impairments:  A Multiple-case study. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 103(5), 291-302.

  • McKenzie, A. R., & Davidson, R. (2007). The emergent literacy of preschool tudents who are deaf-blind: A case stud. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 101, 720-725.

  • Murphy, J. L., Hatton, D., & Erickson, K. A. (2008). Exploring the Early Literacy Practices of Teachers of Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers with Visual Impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 102(3), 133-146.

  • Pandurevikj, R. T., & Dimitrova-Radojichikj, D. B. (2012). Continuous evaluation of the literacy and learning media of students with visual impairment. Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation, 13(3-4), 20-38. doi: 10.2478/v10215-011-0023-5

  • Parker, A. T., & Pogrund R. L. (2009). A review of Research on the Literacy of  students with visual impairments and additional disabilities. Journal of Visual Impairments and Blindness, 103(10), 635-648.

  • Suvak, P. A. (1999)/ What do they really do? Activities of teachers of students with visual impairment. RE:view, 30(4), 181-190.

  • Whitehurst, G. J. & Lonigan, C. J. (1998). Child development and emergent literacy. Child Development, 69, 848-872.

  • Wilkinson, M. E., Trantham, C. S., & Koenig, A. J. (2001). Achieving functional literacy for children with visual impairments. Visual Impairment Research, 3, 85-95.

  • Zebehazy, K. T. (2015). Functional Literacy for Students With Visual Impairments and Significant Cognitive Disabilities: The Perspective of Teachers of Students With Visual Impairments. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 39(4), 259-273. doi: 10.1177/1540796914566712










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